Adeno-associated viral IL-10 reverses established CCI-induced thermal hyperalgesia. After predrug (baseline; BL) assessment on the Hargreaves test, sham (Panels A, B) or CCI (Panels C, D) surgery was performed (timing denoted by the first vertical dotted line). Behavioral assessments were reassessed Days 3 and 10 after surgery to document the lack of thermal hyperalgesia in sham operated rats and development of unilateral allodynia in CCI groups ipsilateral to sciatic surgery. ANOVA revealed reliable main effects of CCI (F 1,40 = 140.740, p < 0.0001) and laterality (F 1,38 = 48.901, p < 0.0001), and an interaction between CCI and laterality (F 1,40 = 104.295, p < 0.0001). After the Day 10 assessment, rats received intrathecal injections of either AAV2-GFP (Control) or AAV2-r-IL-10 (timing denoted by the second vertical dotted line). Behavioral assessments were again recorded on Days 13, 15, 17, 19, 21, 24, 26, and 30 after surgery; that is, Days 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 14, 16, and 20 days after AAV. While neither AAV2-GFP nor AAV2-r-IL-10 exerted marked effects in sham operated animals (Panels A, B) or non-allodynic hindpaws of CCI-operated animals (Panel D), AAV2-r-IL-10 transiently reversed ipsilateral CCI allodynia compared to CCI operated AAV2-GFP treated animals (Panel C). For Days 13–26, ANOVA revealed reliable main effects of CCI (F 1,39 = 134.036, p < 0.0001), IL-10 (F 1,39 = 12.047, p < 0.01) and laterality (F 1,39 = 66.284, p < 0.0001), and interactions between CCI and AAV2-r-IL-10 (F 1,39 = 24.486, p < 0.0001), CCI and laterality (F 1,39 = 91.956, p < 0.0001), and IL-10 and laterality (F 1,39 = 17.392, p < 0.0001). At Day 30, behavioral responses were not significantly different from Day 10 preinjection levels (F 1,39 = 7.824, p > 0.10).