Loss of LFS-evoked LTD in the superficial layer of the IC after tail amputation. (A) A schematic diagram showing the tail amputation model (up) and the experimental procedure (lower). All insular slices are obtained at 2 weeks after amputation in the present study. (B) Light microscopy photograph showing the relative location of the IC slice with the MED64 probe, the stimulation site (red dot) and the layer designation. (C and D) An overview of the 64-channel multi-electrode array recordings in the tail-amputated IC slice (C: before LFS; D: 60 min after LFS). No synaptic depression was revealed. Red dots mark the stimulation sites in the deep layer. Calibration: 100 μV, 10 ms. (E) Pooled data of LFS-elicited LTD in the superficial layer of the IC for sham control (n = 9 slices/7 mice) and tail amputation (n = 9 slices/5 mice) groups. The sham group showed typical LTD lasting for 1 h, while tail amputation abolished the LTD induction. Sample fEPSP recordings taken at the times indicated by the corresponding numbers are shown above the plot. Calibration: 100 μV, 10 ms. Horizontal bars denote the period of LFS delivery. Error bars represent SEM.