TRPV1 modulates spike activity of ventral tegmental area. Dopamine cell recorded in whole cell current clamp mode in-vitro slice preparation. Bath application of capsaicin (middle trace) augmented firing frequency of ventral tegmental cells. In some cases bursting activity was observed (right-most trace and inset). Inset also shows action potentials superimposed on depolarizing envelope. These results indicate that TRPV1 activation can directly modulate central neurons. Adapted from  © 2005 with permission from Macmillan Publishers Ltd.