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Table 1 Multimodal gating in mammalian somatosensory channels

From: Molecular and cellular limits to somatosensory specificity

Channel Thermal Mechanical Chemical Blockers
TRPV1 T>42°C hyper-osmolarity (N-terminal variant), modulates mechanosensitivity protons, capsaicin, resiniferatoxin, camphor, eugeneol, anandamide, lypooxygenases, 2-APB, clotrimazole, hydroxy-alpha-sanshool Ruthenium Red (RR), capsazepine, BCTC, DD01050, iodo-resiniferatoxin, SB-452533, Cu:phenantroline
TRPV2 T>52°C hypo-osmolarity 2-APB, Δ9-THC, probenecid RR, SKF96365
TRPV3 T>30–39°C   camphor, 6-tert-butyl-m-cresol, carvacrol, eugenol, dihydrocarveol, thymol, carveol and (+)-borneol, 2-APB, arachidonic acid (AA); diphenylboronic anhydride diphenyltetrahydrofuran, RR,
TRPV4 T>25–35°C mechanical (sheer stress), hypo-osmolarity 4α-PDD, anandamide, epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, bisandrographolide A RR
TRPM8 T<23–28°C membrane tension menthol, eucalyptol, icilin, WS23, LPC BCTC, SKF96365, clotrimazole, Cu:phenantroline, intracellular acidification, 2-APB
TRPA1 T<18°C mechanical icilin, cinnamaldehyde, mustard oil, allicin, BCTC, 2-APB, 4-hydroxynonenal, hydroxy-alpha-sanshool, acetaldehyde, Δ9-THC, formaldehyde, trinitrophenol, GsMTx-4, methyl p-hydroxybenzoate, menthol, Ca2+ camphor, Gd3+, RR, gentamicin, amiloride, HC-030031, menthol, clorpromazine, AP18
TRPC1   mechanical   Gd3+, La3+, 2-APB
TRPC6   hypo-osmolarity 1-oleolyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol 2-APB
ASIC1 cold (positive modulator) mechanical? Protons amiloride, aspirin, Psalmotoxin, A-317567
ASIC2   mechanical Protons amiloride, aspirin, A-317567
ASIC3 cold (positive modulator) mechanical protons, lactic acid amiloride, aspirin, APETx2, A-317567
P2X2   mechanical (modulates ATP release) ATP, UTP suramin
P2X3   mechanical (modulates ATP release) ATP, α,β-meATP suramin, A-317491, TNP-ATP
TREK1 heat mechanical AA, LPC, protons, riluzole, inhalation anesthetics, flufenamic acid clorpromazine, diltiazem, bupivacaine, fluoxetine, sipatrigine
TREK2 heat mechanical AA, LPC, protons, riluzole, inhalation anesthetics, Zn2+, flufenamic acid Pb2+, diltiazem
TASK1    inhalation anesthetics protons, Zn2+, hypoxia, anandamide, Gα q
TASK3    inhalation anesthetics protons. Zn2+, Ba2+, RR, anandamide, Gα q
  1. The list of agonists and antagonists cited is extensive but not comprehensive, merely illustrating the degree of polymodality observed in different channels.
  2. Notes:
  3. Agonists for TRPV2 show marked species differences (Neeper et al., 2007).
  4. In the case of TREK and TASK channels, blockers produce an augmentation of excitability while activators reduce it.