Intrathecal TGF-β1 infusion prevented the development of mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. Shortly after partial sciatic nerve ligation, rats developed a unilateral hypersensitivity to heat stimuli (A) and a sharp bilateral decrease in paw withdrawal threshold in response to Von Frey hair stimulation at the plantar surface (B). Note that chronic intrathecal infusion of TGF-β1 (2 μg and 5 μg) started on the day of surgery for 14 days (indicated by the blue arrow) almost completely prevented the initiation of thermal hyperalgesia and partially attenuated mechanical allodynia (A-B). Data are shown as means ± SEM. **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001, TGF-β1 treated vs saline treated at each time point, ##p < 0.01, each time point vs. presurgery baseline (d0) in the group of injured-saline-treated rats, n = 6 per group.