Neuroprotective effects of TGF-β1. Partial sciatic nerve ligation caused neuronal damage to both ipsilateral side ventral horn (VHi) motor neurons (A-B) and ipsilateral side DRG (DRGi) sensory neurons (C), in which ATF3 expression was induced. TGF-β1 treatment prevented neuronal damage by reducing the numbers of ATF3+ cells within the spinal cord and DRG (A-E). TGF-β1 treatment also reduced the expression of MCP-1 on VHi and DRGi. Note that both the number of MCP-1+ cells and the intensity of MCP-1 ir were significantly reduced by TGF-β1 (F). Data are shown as means ± SEM. *p < 0.05, TGF-β1 treated vs. saline treated in their respective region. Scale bar: A) 200 μm, B-C) 100 μm, F) 50 μm.