Bupivacaine but not resiniferatoxin reduces the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK in the spinal cord dorsal horn after SNI. (A-D) p-p38 immunostaining in the dorsal horn of control rats (A) and SNI rats receiving vehicle (B), RTX (C), and bupivacaine (Bup, D). (E) Number of p-p38-positive cell profiles in the dorsal horn: Left, effects of RTX on SNI-induced cell proliferation. Right: effects of bupivacaine on SNI-induced cell proliferation *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ns = no significance. Scale bar 100 μm. n = 3-5.