(a) Pain intensity assessed by 100 mm VAS was lower in the keterolac treatment group (p = 0.023, two way ANOVA); Data are presented as mean ± SEM. (b-e) The change in gene expression level (RQ) of both B1 and B2 receptors was correlated to pain intensity (VAS) in the keterolac treatment group but not in the placebo treatment group. The association between the gene expression and pain scale was examined using Pearson correlation. The y-axis represents the sum of the pain intensity over the first 3 hours post-surgery. The x-axis represents the relative changes in gene expression (RQ) from qRT-PCR.