Effects of microinfusion of lidocaine into the ACC on the initial and retention latencies tested in the inhibitory avoidance task. a. Illustration of infusion cannula placements (arrow) in a histological coronal section. Placements shown are from all rats included in the final analysis (Saline, open circles; Lidocaine, filled inverted triangles). b. Lidocaine infusion into the ACC immediately after behavioral training disrupted retention of inhibitory avoidance learning tested 10 min later. Fisher's LSD test showed a significant difference between the saline and lidocaine microinfusion rats in the retention test 10 min after footshock (**p < 0.01).