Effects of epidural ropivacaine treatment on the activated spinal glial cells in CCI rats. (a) Representative images of immunohistochemical staining for CD11b (a microglial activation marker) and GFAP (an astrocyte activation marker) in the L4 spinal dorsal horn. L4 spinal cords were obtained from control intact rats, CCI rats treated with saline and CCI rats treated with ropivacaine at day 14 after CCI. Scale bar, 200 μm. Insets: High-magnification views of immunoreactive cells. Scale bar, 5 μm. (b) Densitometric quantification of CD11b and GFAP immunoreactivities on the ipsilateral and contralateral sides. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01 and ***p < 0.001 by Tukey-Kramer's multiple comparison test (n = 4).