Artemin suppressed nocifensive behaviors induced by AITC intraplantar injection. Artemin (10 μg/ml) or PBS was pre-treated subcutaneously 5 min before AITC (3% in 50 μl liquid paraffin) injection. (A-D): Left panels show the time course of the number of hind paw liftings (A) and the duration of paw flinches (C) after AITC injection with artemin (ARTN) or PBS pre-treatment. The number counted per 5 min interval in the initial 30 min post-injection period. Right panels show cumulative number of paw lifts (B) and cumulative duration of flinches (D) over the first 30 min period after injection of AITC. * p < 0.05; versus PBS + AITC at each time point (unpaired t-test), # p < 0.05; ## p < 0.001; versus PBS + AITC group (two-way repeated ANOVA followed by Fisher's PLSD), $ p < 0.05; $$ p < 0.01; versus PBS + AITC group (two-way factorial ANOVA). Numbers in parentheses indicate number of rats used in each group.