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Table 1 Cortical areas that are implicated in chronic pain conditions by human brain imaging fMRI that are difficult to be investigated by traditional animal pain models

From: Cortical plasticity as a new endpoint measurement for chronic pain

Cortical area Clinical pain conditions Major discovery
ACC Migraine/headache
Phantom pain
SCI induced pain
Chronic back pain
Altered excitatory transmission
Related to increased imaged activity
Increased activity with imaged pain
Increased activity
IC Migraine/headache
Chronic back pain
Hypothically induced pain
Altered excitatory transmission
Increased imaged activity
Increased imaged activity
PFC Migraine/headache
Phantom pain
SCI induced pain
Chronic back pain
Hypothically induced pain
Altered brain metabolism
Related to increased imaged activity
Increased activity with imaged pain
Correlated with spontaneous pain; reduced gray matter density
Increased imaged activity
S1, S2 Migraine/headache
Phantom pain
SCI induced pain
Altered sensory transmission
Correlation of cortical reorganization
Correlated with cortical reorganization
  1. Abbreviations:
  2. ACC: anterior cingulate cortex
  3. IC: insular cortex
  4. PFC: prefrontal cortex
  5. S1: primary somatosensory cortex
  6. S2: Secondary somatosensory cortex