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Table 1 Cortical areas that are implicated in chronic pain conditions by human brain imaging fMRI that are difficult to be investigated by traditional animal pain models

From: Cortical plasticity as a new endpoint measurement for chronic pain

Cortical area Clinical pain conditions Major discovery
ACC Migraine/headache Phantom pain SCI induced pain Chronic back pain Altered excitatory transmission Related to increased imaged activity Increased activity with imaged pain Increased activity
IC Migraine/headache Chronic back pain Hypothically induced pain Altered excitatory transmission Increased imaged activity Increased imaged activity
PFC Migraine/headache Phantom pain SCI induced pain Chronic back pain Hypothically induced pain Altered brain metabolism Related to increased imaged activity Increased activity with imaged pain Correlated with spontaneous pain; reduced gray matter density Increased imaged activity
S1, S2 Migraine/headache Phantom pain SCI induced pain Altered sensory transmission Correlation of cortical reorganization Correlated with cortical reorganization
  1. Abbreviations:
  2. ACC: anterior cingulate cortex
  3. IC: insular cortex
  4. PFC: prefrontal cortex
  5. S1: primary somatosensory cortex
  6. S2: Secondary somatosensory cortex