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Table 2 Proposed cortical markers for measuring pain endpoints in chronic pain

From: Cortical plasticity as a new endpoint measurement for chronic pain

Category Measure index
Immediate early gene Activation of c-Fos; Egr1; pCREB
Cortical potentiation Enhanced AMPA receptor mediated EPSCs
Presynaptic enhancement  
    Paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) PPF ratio
    mEPSCs Frequency
  Amplitude
Postsynaptic potentiation  
    AMPA receptor Inward rectification
    NMDA NR2B receptor Enhanced NR2B sensitive EPSCs
    PKMζ inhibition More sensitive to ZIP inhibition
Biochemistry  
    AMPA receptor GluR1 Increased membrane bind AMPA receptor
    p-AMPA receptor Increased phosphorylation at PKA site
    PKMζ Enhanced pPKMζ
In vivo field LTP Injury induced LTP
Structural changes Outgrow of neuronal dendrites and increased spine density
Brain imaging & in vivo whole-cell Increased spike responses to non-noxious stimuli
  Enhanced cortical activities before and/or after peripheral stimuli