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Figure 5 | Molecular Pain

Figure 5

From: The Rat Grimace Scale: A partially automated method for quantifying pain in the laboratory rat via facial expressions

Figure 5

Prominence of individual action units at the peak of apparent spontaneous pain in each assay (see Figure 4). Bars represent mean ± SEM difference scores (pain - no pain; n = 23 rats). Overall, all action units were equally prominent statistically (a), and this was also true in each assay considered separately (b). **p< 0.01 (Bonferroni-corrected) compared to other assays. K/C = kaolin/carrageenan.

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