Permanent relief from ICS-induced thermal hyperalgesia by repeated intrathecal administration of milnacipran. Intrathecal injections of milnacipran (0.1 μg) were given once daily at 11:30 a.m. from P1-P5 after assessment of nociceptive thresholds at 11:00 a.m. Results represent the basal threshold as the latency to paw-withdrawal from thermal stimuli (PWL, in seconds), just before the daily injection of vehicle or milnacipran. *p < 0.05, vs. vehicle-treated control group; #p < 0.05, vs. vehicle-treated and ICS-exposed groups. Data are expressed as the means ± S.E.M.;4-8 mice per group.