PNI induces a fundamental reorganization of translation signaling and machinery in the injured PNS. A) PNI in rats causes upregulation of translation machinery and signaling pathways associated with protein translation. These changes are observed in the injured sciatic nerve and in both injured (L5 and L6) and uninjured (L4) DRGs. B) PNI in mice increases proteins that enhance translation and associated signaling pathways. In both panels, up arrows indicate an increase while down arrows indicate a decrease; numbers indicate fold change in ipilateral vs. contralateral (right) and phospho-protein vs. total protein (left). C) Immunohistochemical colocalization of p-mTOR with sensory neuronal markers (peripherin + N52) show that activated mTOR localizes to axons of injured sciatic nerve from rats with SNL.