A. Schematic diagram of the radiculopathy rat model from the L5 nerve to the spinal cord: The L5 nerve was ligated at 2 mm proximal to the DRG (group C), at the DRG (group D), at 2 mm distal to the DRG (group E) by a microscope at 5× magnification. B. Withdrawal reflexes to 10 stimulations of a 10 g von Frey filament: The withdrawal threshold was a significantly different for nerve injury distal to the DRG compared with injury proximal to the DRG. There were no significant differences in the number of withdrawal reflexes between normal group A and the sham group B. The nerve injury groups (C, D, E) were more sensitive than the sham group (*P < 0.001), with significant differences between groups C, D and E (**P < 0.001).