Activation of the mTOR signaling pathway in the hippocampus by persistent peripheral nociception, but the effect was reversed by rapamycin (RAPA). (A) Western blot analysis of p-mTOR, mTOR, p-S6K, and S6K expression in hippocampal lysates at various times after bee venom (BV) treatment. (B) Western analysis of p-mTOR, mTOR, p-S6K, and S6K in hippocampus tissues extracts from saline control (sal-control), Sal + BV, and bupivacaine (Bup) + BV groups. (C) Western blot analysis of p-mTOR, mTOR, p-S6K, and S6K in hippocampal lysates from Sal-control, 2%DMSO + BV, and RAPA + BV groups. Relative expresions of p-mTOR, mTOR, p-S6K, and S6K immunolabeling are shown relative to the control or sal-control (100%). β-tubulin was used as an internal control. The data were showed as means ± SD (n = 3). *P < 0.05 vs. sal-control group; #P < 0.05, ##P < 0.01, bupivacaine + BV group vs. Sal + BV; ΔP < 0.05, ΔΔP < 0.01, RAPA + BV group vs. 2%DMSO + BV group.