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Table 3 Incidence of persistent post-surgical pain after different surgical interventions

From: Chronic dry eye symptoms after LASIK: parallels and lessons to be learned from other persistent post-operative pain disorders

Study Surgery N Design Definition Incidence
Brandsborg 2007 [65] C-section 1173 Questionnaire 1 year after surgery Pain 31.9% at 1 year
Brander 2003 [64] Total knee replacement 116 Prospective longitudinal Significant pain (VAS > 40) 13.1% at 1 year
Inaba 2012 [59] Inguinal hernia repair 191 Questionnaire Any pain 14.7% at variable time points least 3 months after surgery
Oberg 2005 [61] Laparoscopic inguinal herniorrhaphy 161 Questionnaire Chronic pain; unclear definition 4% at variable time points
Duale 2014 [67] Elective C-section, inguinal herniorrhaphy, breast cancer surgery, cholecystectomy, saphenectomy, sternotomy, thoracotomy, or knee arthroscopy 2397 Multicenter prospective longitudinal 4 items positive on DN4 All (20.6%); laparoscopic herniorrhaphy (3.2%); knee arthroscopy (15.8%); C-section (24.5%); thoracotomy (32.7%); breast cancer surgery (37.1%) at 6 months
Ilfeld 2014 [68] Mastectomy 30 Prospective longitudinal Brief pain inventory pain induced dysfunction 47% at 12 months
Liang 2013 [69] Ventral hernia repair 122 Retrospective Unclear definition categorical variable 17.2% at variable time points
Nikolajsen 2004 [70] C-section 220 Questionnaire mean follow-up time 10.2 months after surgery Pain at the time of the questionnaire 12.3% at variable time points