DAVID bioinformatics and RT-qPCR validation. A). 20 functional annotation clusters were identified using the DAVID online bioinformatics tool. The horizontal bars indicate the number of genes that are upregulated (to the right) or downregulated (to the left) in each cluster. Joined bars indicate the upregulated and downregulated genes for each cluster. For clarity, alternate black and white bars are used between clusters. For details of the genes contained in each cluster see Additional file 2: Table S2. B). A number of genes were selected for validation by RT-qPCR. 2∆Ct values were obtained for each group, using actin as the housekeeping gene. Data is presented as fold change of the dermorphin-saporin (DS) + CFA group over the saline + CFA control group, mean ± SEM. n = 4 – 6 per group, *p < 0.05 independent samples t-test.