Effects of ACC lesion on the initial and retention latencies tested in the inhibitory avoidance task. a. A typical example of histology illustrating the lesion site (arrow). Drawing of radiofrequency lesions of the ACC sustained by rats in all experiments were composed in a series of coronal planes. Atlas templates of this and the following figures were adapted from Swanson . The lighter areas indicate the maximum extent of all lesions, and darker areas indicate the minimum damage sustained by any rat. b. Mean latency in seconds (± SE) to enter the dark compartment in ACC sham and ACC lesion rats tested before and 30 s after footshock training. Fisher's LSD test showed a significant difference in latency between the ACC sham and ACC lesion rats tested 30 s after footshock (*p < 0.05) but no difference in initial latency. c. Mean latency in seconds (± SE) to enter the dark compartment in ACC sham and ACC lesion rats tested before and 24 h after electrical footshock training.