Peripheral nerve injury enhances the expression of mRNA for PAF receptor in ipsilateral spinal microglia. (A) Upper panels show PCR products from the ipsilateral L4-L5 spinal cord taken from 0 (naive), 1, 3, 7 and 14 days after nerve injury. Lower graphs show the statistical quantification of the relative mRNA levels of PAFr. PAFr mRNA level was normalized against GAPDH (n = 4, mean ± SEM, #; p < 0.05 compared with naive). (B, C) Darkfield photographs reveal the ISHH for PAFr mRNA expression in the spinal cord taken from naïve rats (B) or 7 days (C) after SNI surgery. (D-F) Characterization of SNI-induced PAFr mRNA in the spinal dorsal horn. Brightfield photographs of combined ISHH for PAFr with IHC for NeuN (D), GFAP (E) and Iba1 (F) at 7 days after injury. Open arrows indicate double-labeled cells. Arrowheads indicate single-labeled cells by ISHH (aggregation of grains), and open arrowheads indicate single immunostained cells (brown staining). Calibration bars: darkfield images; 500 μm, brightfield images; 20 μm.