Fluorescence photomicrographs of keratin (red), IL-1β (green), and IL-6 (green) immunostaining in the plantar hindpaw skin at 3 weeks post-fracture (FX). The top two rows of panels show keratinocyte and IL-1β immunostaining from a wildtype (WT) unfractured control (Cont) mouse (first row) and the second row panels are from a WT fracture mouse. The bottom two rows of panels show keratinocyte and IL-6 immunostaining from a WT unfractured control mouse (third row) and the bottom row panels are from a WT fracture mouse. Double labeling demonstrates fracture-induced IL-1β and IL-6 protein up-regulation localized within the epidermal keratinocyte layer of the WT mice. Scale bar = 20 μm.