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  1. We previously reported that intrathecal injection of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) induced neuropathic pain through activation of the lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)-1 receptor, possibly via conversion to LPA by a...

    Authors: Lin Ma, Hitoshi Uchida, Jun Nagai, Makoto Inoue, Jerold Chun, Junken Aoki and Hiroshi Ueda

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2009 5:64

    Content type: Research

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  2. Growing evidence in the literature shows that oxytocin (OT) has a strong spinal anti-nociceptive action. Oxytocinergic axons originating from a subpopulation of paraventricular hypothalamic neurons establish s...

    Authors: Jean Didier Breton, Pierrick Poisbeau and Pascal Darbon

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2009 5:63

    Content type: Research

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  3. TRPM8 is a non-selective cation channel that belongs to the melastatin subfamily of the transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels. TRPM8 is activated by voltage, cold and cooling compounds such as mentho...

    Authors: Annika Malkia, María Pertusa, Gregorio Fernández-Ballester, Antonio Ferrer-Montiel and Félix Viana

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2009 5:62

    Content type: Research

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  4. The analgesic effects of cannabinoids are well documented, but these are often limited by psychoactive side-effects. Recent studies indicate that the endocannabinoid system is dynamic and altered under differe...

    Authors: Devi Rani Sagar, A Gemma Gaw, Bright N Okine, Stephen G Woodhams, Amy Wong, David A Kendall and Victoria Chapman

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2009 5:59

    Content type: Review

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  5. The role of the diffusible messenger nitric oxide (NO) in the regulation of pain transmission is still a debate of matter, pro-nociceptive and/or anti-nociceptive. S-Nitrosylation, the reversible post-translation...

    Authors: Jingshan Lu, Tayo Katano, Emiko Okuda-Ashitaka, Yo Oishi, Yoshihiro Urade and Seiji Ito

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2009 5:58

    Content type: Research

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  6. Genetic risk factors for pain sensitivity may also play a role in susceptibility to chronic pain disorders, in which subjects have low pain thresholds. The aim of this study was to determine if proposed functi...

    Authors: Kate L Holliday, Barbara I Nicholl, Gary J Macfarlane, Wendy Thomson, Kelly A Davies and John McBeth

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2009 5:56

    Content type: Short report

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  7. Pain is known to be processed by a complex neural network (neuromatrix) in the brain. It is hypothesized that under pathological state, persistent or chronic pain can affect various higher brain functions thro...

    Authors: Xiao-Yan Zhao, Ming-Gang Liu, Dong-Liang Yuan, Yan Wang, Ying He, Dan-Dan Wang, Xue-Feng Chen, Fu-Kang Zhang, Hua Li, Xiao-Sheng He and Jun Chen

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2009 5:55

    Content type: Research

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  8. Visceral hypersensitivity is a clinical observation made when diagnosing patients with functional bowel disorders. The cause of visceral hypersensitivity is unknown but is thought to be attributed to inflammat...

    Authors: Shelby K Suckow and Robert M Caudle

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2009 5:54

    Content type: Research

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  9. After peripheral nerve injury, spontaneous ectopic activity arising from the peripheral axons plays an important role in inducing central sensitization and neuropathic pain. Recent evidence indicates that acti...

    Authors: Marc R Suter, Temugin Berta, Yong-Jing Gao, Isabelle Decosterd and Ru-Rong Ji

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2009 5:53

    Content type: Research

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  10. Gene transfer to nociceptive neurons of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) is a promising approach to dissect mechanisms of pain in rodents and is a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of persistent pa...

    Authors: Chris Towne, Marie Pertin, Ahmed T Beggah, Patrick Aebischer and Isabelle Decosterd

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2009 5:52

    Content type: Research

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  11. Group I mGluRs (mGluR1 and 5) pre- and/or postsynaptically regulate synaptic transmission at glutamatergic synapses. By recording spontaneous EPSCs (sEPSCs) in the spinal trigeminal subnucleus oralis (Vo), we ...

    Authors: Ji-Hyeon Song, Eun-Sung Park, Sang-Mi Han, Seung-Ro Han, Dong-Kuk Ahn and Dong-Ho Youn

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2009 5:50

    Content type: Research

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  12. We have shown functional expression of several TRP channels on human synovial cells, proposing significance in known calcium dependent proliferative and secretory responses in joint inflammation. The present s...

    Authors: Mikhail Y Kochukov, Terry A McNearney, Huaizhi Yin, Liping Zhang, Fei Ma, Larissa Ponomareva, Sarah Abshire and Karin N Westlund

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2009 5:49

    Content type: Research

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  13. Painful distal sensory polyneuropathy (DSP) is the most common neurological complication of HIV1 infection. Although infection with the virus itself is associated with an incidence of DSP, patients are more li...

    Authors: Sonia K Bhangoo, Matthew S Ripsch, David J Buchanan, Richard J Miller and Fletcher A White

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2009 5:48

    Content type: Research

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  14. P2X3 and P2X2/3 purinergic receptor-channels, expressed in primary sensory neurons that mediate nociception, have been implicated in neuropathic and inflammatory pain responses. The phospholipids phosphatidyli...

    Authors: Gary Mo, Louis-Philippe Bernier, Qi Zhao, Anne-Julie Chabot-Doré, Ariel R Ase, Diomedes Logothetis, Chang-Qing Cao and Philippe Séguéla

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2009 5:47

    Content type: Research

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  15. Cortical areas including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) are important for pain and pleasure. Recent studies using genetic and physiological approaches have demonstrated that the investigation of basic mec...

    Authors: Hiroki Toyoda, Ming-Gao Zhao, Bettina Ulzhöfer, Long-Jun Wu, Hui Xu, Peter H Seeburg, Rolf Sprengel, Rohini Kuner and Min Zhuo

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2009 5:46

    Content type: Research

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  16. Descending facilitation, from the brainstem, promotes spinal neuronal hyperexcitability and behavioural hypersensitivity in many chronic pain states. We have previously demonstrated enhanced descending facilit...

    Authors: Wahida Rahman, Claudia S Bauer, Kirsty Bannister, Jean-Laurent Vonsy, Annette C Dolphin and Anthony H Dickenson

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2009 5:45

    Content type: Research

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  17. The pathogenesis of visceral hypersensitivity, a characteristic pathophysiological feature of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), remains elusive. Recent studies suggest a role for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in pain sign...

    Authors: Guang-Yin Xu, John H Winston, Mohan Shenoy, Shufang Zhou, Jiande DZ Chen and Pankaj J Pasricha

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2009 5:44

    Content type: Research

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  18. Migraine is a complex, chronic, painful, neurovascular disorder characterized by episodic activation of the trigeminal system. Increased levels of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) are found at different ...

    Authors: Alessandro Capuano, Alice De Corato, Lucia Lisi, Giuseppe Tringali, Pierluigi Navarra and Cinzia Dello Russo

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2009 5:43

    Content type: Research

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  19. Our goal is to use gene therapy to alleviate pain by targeting glial cells. In an animal model of facial pain we tested the effect of transfecting the glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) gene into satellite glia...

    Authors: Jean-Philippe Vit, Peter T Ohara, Christopher Sundberg, Blanca Rubi, Pierre Maechler, Chunyan Liu, Mariana Puntel, Pedro Lowenstein, Maria Castro and Luc Jasmin

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2009 5:42

    Content type: Research

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  20. While acute effects of stress on pain are well described, those produced by chronic stress are still a matter of dispute. Previously we demonstrated that chronic unpredictable stress results in antinociception...

    Authors: Filipa Pinto-Ribeiro, Vitor Moreira, José M Pêgo, Pedro Leão, Armando Almeida and Nuno Sousa

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2009 5:41

    Content type: Research

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  21. Central neurotensin (NT) administration results in a naloxone-insensitive antinociceptive response in animal models of acute and persistent pain. Both NTS1 and NTS2 receptors were shown to be required for diff...

    Authors: Geneviève Roussy, Marc-André Dansereau, Stéphanie Baudisson, Faouzi Ezzoubaa, Karine Belleville, Nicolas Beaudet, Jean Martinez, Elliott Richelson and Philippe Sarret

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2009 5:38

    Content type: Research

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  22. There is evidence from animal studies that serotonin (5-HT) can influence the antinociceptive effects of opioids at the spinal cord level. Therefore, there could be an influence of genetic polymorphisms in the...

    Authors: Eva Kosek, Karin B Jensen, Tina B Lonsdorf, Martin Schalling and Martin Ingvar

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2009 5:37

    Content type: Research

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  23. Activation of spinal microglia contributes to aberrant pain responses associated with neuropathic pain states. Endocannabinoids (ECs) are present in the spinal cord, and inhibit nociceptive processing; levels ...

    Authors: Leonardo Guasti, Denise Richardson, Maulik Jhaveri, Khalil Eldeeb, David Barrett, Maurice R Elphick, Stephen PH Alexander, David Kendall, Gregory J Michael and Victoria Chapman

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2009 5:35

    Content type: Research

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  24. To examine biochemical differences in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and insula during the interictal phase of migraine patients. We hypothesized that there may be differences in levels of excitatory amin...

    Authors: Andrew Prescot, Lino Becerra, Gautam Pendse, Shannon Tully, Eric Jensen, Richard Hargreaves, Perry Renshaw, Rami Burstein and David Borsook

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2009 5:34

    Content type: Research

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  25. Substance P (SP), which mainly exists in a subtype of small-diameter dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, is an important signal molecule in pain processing in the spinal cord. Our previous results have proved ...

    Authors: Chun-Lei Cang, Hua Zhang, Yu-Qiu Zhang and Zhi-Qi Zhao

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2009 5:33

    Content type: Research

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  26. Morphine consumption can vary widely between individuals even for identical surgical procedures. As mu-opioid receptor (OPRM1) is known to modulate pain perception and mediate the analgesic effects of opioid c...

    Authors: Ene-choo Tan, Eileen CP Lim, Yik-ying Teo, Yvonne Lim, Hai-yang Law and Alex T Sia

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2009 5:32

    Content type: Research

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  27. Functional imaging has revolutionized the neurosciences. In the pain field it has dramatically altered our understanding of how the brain undergoes significant functional, anatomical and chemical changes in pa...

    Authors: Simona Sava, Alyssa A Lebel, David S Leslie, Athena Drosos, Charles Berde, Lino Becerra and David Borsook

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2009 5:30

    Content type: Review

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  28. Long-term potentiation (LTP), a much studied cellular model of synaptic plasticity, has not been demonstrated at synapses between primary afferent C-fibers and spinal dorsal horn (DH) neurons in mice in vivo. Eph...

    Authors: Wen-Tao Liu, Yuan Han, Hao-Chuan Li, Brandt Adams, Ji-Hong Zheng, Yong-Ping Wu, Mark Henkemeyer and Xue-Jun Song

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2009 5:29

    Content type: Research

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  29. A growing body of evidence indicates that P2X receptors (P2XRs), a family of ligand-gated cation channels activated by extracellular ATP, play an important role in pain signaling. In contrast to the role of th...

    Authors: Makoto Tsuda, Kazuya Kuboyama, Tomoyuki Inoue, Kenichiro Nagata, Hidetoshi Tozaki-Saitoh and Kazuhide Inoue

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2009 5:28

    Content type: Short report

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  30. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a key regulator of mRNA translation whose action can be inhibited by the drug rapamycin. Forms of long-term plasticity require protein synthesis and evidence indicat...

    Authors: Curtis O Asante, Victoria C Wallace and Anthony H Dickenson

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2009 5:27

    Content type: Research

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  31. Inflammatory processes play important roles in both neuropathic and inflammatory pain states, but the effects of inflammation per se within the sensory ganglia are not well understood. The cytokine growth-related...

    Authors: Rui-Hua Yang, Judith A Strong and Jun-Ming Zhang

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2009 5:26

    Content type: Research

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  32. Cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CBR2) inhibits microglial reactivity through a molecular mechanism yet to be elucidated. We hypothesized that CBR2 activation induces an anti-inflammatory phenotype in microglia by...

    Authors: Edgar Alfonso Romero-Sandoval, Ryan Horvath, Russell P Landry and Joyce A DeLeo

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2009 5:25

    Content type: Research

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  33. Local inhibitory interneurons in the dorsal horn play an important role in the control of excitability at the segmental level and thus determine how nociceptive information is relayed to higher structures. Reg...

    Authors: Charalampos Labrakakis, Louis-Etienne Lorenzo, Cyril Bories, Alfredo Ribeiro-da-Silva and Yves De Koninck

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2009 5:24

    Content type: Short report

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  34. Neuropathic pain is a debilitating pain condition that occurs after nerve damage. Such pain is considered to be a reflection of the aberrant excitability of dorsal horn neurons. Emerging lines of evidence indi...

    Authors: Junya Masuda, Makoto Tsuda, Hidetoshi Tozaki-Saitoh and Kazuhide Inoue

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2009 5:23

    Content type: Short report

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  35. Peripheral nerve injury leads to a persistent neuropathic pain state in which innocuous stimulation elicits pain behavior (tactile allodynia), but the underlying mechanisms have remained largely unknown. We ha...

    Authors: Shigeo Hasegawa, Yuta Kohro, Makoto Tsuda and Kazuhide Inoue

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2009 5:22

    Content type: Research

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  36. Neuropathic pain is characterized by pain hypersensitivity to innocuous stimuli (tactile allodynia) that is nearly always resistant to known treatments such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or even opi...

    Authors: Kenichiro Nagata, Toshiyasu Imai, Tomohiro Yamashita, Makoto Tsuda, Hidetoshi Tozaki-Saitoh and Kazuhide Inoue

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2009 5:20

    Content type: Research

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  37. Osteoarthritis is a widespread condition affecting the elderly where ~70–90% of over 75 year olds are affected, representing one of the largest cost burdens to healthcare in the western world. The monosodium i...

    Authors: Victoria L Harvey and Anthony H Dickenson

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2009 5:18

    Content type: Research

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  38. Morphine and its derivatives are key drugs in pain control. Despite its well-known analgesic properties morphine at high concentrations may be proalgesic. Particularly, short-lasting painful sensations have be...

    Authors: Alexander B Forster, Peter W Reeh, Karl Messlinger and Michael JM Fischer

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2009 5:17

    Content type: Research

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  39. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of neuropathic pain caused by damage to the peripheral nervous system remains challenging and could lead to significantly improved therapies. Disturbance of homeostasis ...

    Authors: Stefania Echeverry, Xiang Qun Shi, Alexandra Haw, Hong Liu, Zhong-wei Zhang and Ji Zhang

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2009 5:16

    Content type: Research

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  40. Clearance of synaptically released glutamate, and hence termination of glutamatergic neurotransmission, is carried out by glutamate transporters, most especially glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) and the glutama...

    Authors: Wen-Jun Xin, Han-Rong Weng and Patrick M Dougherty

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2009 5:15

    Content type: Research

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