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  1. Clinical and experimental studies of neuropathic pain support the hypothesis that a functional coupling between postganglionic sympathetic efferent and sensory afferent fibers contributes to the pain. We inves...

    Authors: Marie Pertin, Andrew J Allchorne, Ahmed T Beggah, Clifford J Woolf and Isabelle Decosterd

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2007 3:21

    Content type: Research

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  2. Because excessive reduction in activities after back injury may impair recovery, it is important to understand and address the factors contributing to the variability in motor responses to pain. The current do...

    Authors: Bikash K Mishra, Tianxia Wu, Inna Belfer, Colin A Hodgkinson, Leonardo G Cohen, Carly Kiselycznyk, Albert Kingman, Robert B Keller, Qiaoping Yuan, David Goldman, Steven J Atlas and Mitchell B Max

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2007 3:20

    Content type: Methodology

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  3. In general, opioids that induce the recycling of μ-opioid receptors (MORs) promote little desensitization, although morphine is one exception to this rule. While morphine fails to provoke significant internali...

    Authors: María Rodríguez-Muñoz, Elena de la Torre-Madrid, Pilar Sánchez-Blázquez and Javier Garzón

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2007 3:19

    Content type: Research

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  4. The phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) in DRG and dorsal horn neurons is induced by the C-fiber electrical stimulation to the peripheral nerve. The present study was designed to in...

    Authors: Tomokazu Fukui, Yi Dai, Koichi Iwata, Hiroshi Kamo, Hiroki Yamanaka, Koichi Obata, Kimiko Kobayashi, Shenglan Wang, Xiuyu Cui, Shinichi Yoshiya and Koichi Noguchi

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2007 3:18

    Content type: Research

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  5. The Na+, K+, 2Cl- type I cotransporter (NKCC1) and TRPV1 receptors, at the level of the dorsal horn, have been implicated in mediating allodynia in response to an inflammatory insult. The NKCC1 cotransporter regu...

    Authors: Mark H Pitcher, Theodore J Price, Jose M Entrena and Fernando Cervero

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2007 3:17

    Content type: Research

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  6. It is well known that antidepressants increase neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. The increase of neurogenesis might contribute to the behavioral effects of antidepressants. However, the mec...

    Authors: Hyoung-Gon Ko, Sung Joong Lee, Hyeon Son and Bong-Kiun Kaang

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2007 3:16

    Content type: Research

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  7. Among different forms of persistent pain, neuropathic pain presents as a most difficult task for basic researchers and clinicians. Despite recent rapid development of neuroscience and modern techniques related...

    Authors: Min Zhuo

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2007 3:14

    Content type: Review

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  8. Small neurons of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) express five of the nine known voltage-gated sodium channels. Each channel has unique biophysical characteristics which determine how it contributes to the gener...

    Authors: T Patrick Harty and Stephen G Waxman

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2007 3:12

    Content type: Research

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  9. NMDA receptors (NMDARs) are involved in excitatory synaptic transmission and plasticity associated with a variety of brain functions, from memory formation to chronic pain. Subunit-selective antagonists for NM...

    Authors: Long-Jun Wu, Hui Xu, Ming Ren, Xiaoyan Cao and Min Zhuo

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2007 3:11

    Content type: Research

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  10. Long-term potentiation (LTP) at synapses of nociceptive nerve fibres is a proposed cellular mechanism underlying some forms of hyperalgesia. In this review fundamental properties of LTP in nociceptive pathways...

    Authors: Jürgen Sandkühler

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2007 3:9

    Content type: Review

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  11. The assessment of pain is of critical importance for mechanistic studies as well as for the validation of drug targets. This review will focus on knee joint pain associated with arthritis. Different animal mod...

    Authors: Volker Neugebauer, Jeong S Han, Hita Adwanikar, Yu Fu and Guangchen Ji

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2007 3:8

    Content type: Review

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  12. Previous studies have demonstrated that prolonged morphine treatment in vivo induces the translocation of delta opioid receptors (δORs) from intracellular compartments to neuronal plasma membranes and this traffi...

    Authors: Sarah V Holdridge, Stacey A Armstrong, Anna MW Taylor and Catherine M Cahill

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2007 3:7

    Content type: Research

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  13. There is a population of large neurons with cell bodies in laminae III and IV of the spinal dorsal horn which express the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1r) and have dendrites that enter the superficial laminae. Alt...

    Authors: Erika Polgár, Annie D Campbell, Lynsey M MacIntyre, Masahiko Watanabe and Andrew J Todd

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2007 3:4

    Content type: Research

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  14. The disabling chronic pain syndrome erythromelalgia (also termed erythermalgia) is characterized by attacks of burning pain in the extremities induced by warmth. Pharmacological treatment is often ineffective,...

    Authors: Chongyang Han, Angelika Lampert, Anthony M Rush, Sulayman D Dib-Hajj, Xiaoliang Wang, Yong Yang and Stephen G Waxman

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2007 3:3

    Content type: Research

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  15. Since its launch at the beginning of 2005, Molecular Pain has published pain research articles that cover broad areas including: genetics, molecular and cellular biology, synaptic and neuronal mechanisms, novel a...

    Authors: Jianguo Gu and Min Zhuo

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2007 3:2

    Content type: Editorial

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  16. Understanding basic neuronal mechanisms hold the hope for future treatment of brain disease. The 1st international conference on synapse, memory, drug addiction and pain was held in beautiful downtown Toronto,...

    Authors: Guo-Qiang Bi, Vadim Bolshakov, Guojun Bu, Catherine M Cahill, Zhou-Feng Chen, Graham L Collingridge, Robin L Cooper, Jens R Coorssen, Alaa El-Husseini, Vasco Galhardo, Wen-Biao Gan, Jianguo Gu, Kazuhide Inoue, John Isaac, Koichi Iwata, Zhengping Jia…

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2006 2:38

    Content type: Research

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  17. A hallmark of many orofacial pain disorders is cold sensitivity, but relative to heat-related pain, mechanisms of cold perception and the development of cold allodynia are not clearly understood. Molecular med...

    Authors: Heather L Rossi, Charles J Vierck Jr, Robert M Caudle and John K Neubert

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2006 2:37

    Content type: Research

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  18. Prokineticins (PKs), consisting of PK1 and PK2, are a pair of newly identified regulatory peptides. Two closely related G-protein coupled receptors, PKR1 and PKR2, mediate the signaling of PKs. PKs/PKRs partic...

    Authors: Wang-Ping Hu, Chengkang Zhang, Jia-Da Li, Z David Luo, Silvia Amadesi, Nigel Bunnett and Qun-Yong Zhou

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2006 2:35

    Content type: Research

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  19. Two major approaches have been employed for the development of novel drugs to treat chronic pain. The most traditional approach identifies molecules involved in pain as potential therapeutic targets and has fo...

    Authors: Hendrik W Steenland, Shanelle W Ko, Long-Jun Wu and Min Zhuo

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2006 2:34

    Content type: Review

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  20. Changes in sodium channel activity and neuronal hyperexcitability contribute to neuropathic pain, a major clinical problem. There is strong evidence that the re-expression of the embryonic voltage-gated sodium...

    Authors: Mohammed A Nassar, Mark D Baker, Alessandra Levato, Rachel Ingram, Giovanna Mallucci, Stephen B McMahon and John N Wood

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2006 2:33

    Content type: Research

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  21. Reduction of the transmembrane chloride gradient in spinal lamina I neurons contributes to the cellular hyperexcitability producing allodynia and hyperalgesia after peripheral nerve injury. The resultant decre...

    Authors: Steven A Prescott, Terrence J Sejnowski and Yves De Koninck

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2006 2:32

    Content type: Research

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  22. The synaptic and cellular mechanisms of pain-related central sensitization in the spinal cord are not fully understood yet. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) has been identified as an important molecule i...

    Authors: Gary C Bird, Jeong S Han, Yu Fu, Hita Adwanikar, William D Willis and Volker Neugebauer

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2006 2:31

    Content type: Research

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  23. GluR5-containing kainate receptors (KARs) are known to be involved in nociceptive transmission. Our previous work has shown that the activation of presynaptic KARs regulates GABAergic and glycinergic synaptic ...

    Authors: Hui Xu, Long-Jun Wu, Ming-Gao Zhao, Hiroki Toyoda, Kunjumon I Vadakkan, Yongheng Jia, Raphael Pinaud and Min Zhuo

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2006 2:29

    Content type: Research

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  24. Among various machineries occurring in the experimental neuropathic pain model, there exists the loss of pain transmission through C-fiber neurons as well as the hypersensitivity through A-fibers. The current ...

    Authors: Makoto Inoue, Asuka Yamaguchi, Megumi Kawakami, Jerold Chun and Hiroshi Ueda

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2006 2:25

    Content type: Short report

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  25. Candidate gene studies on the basis of biological hypotheses have been a practical approach to identify relevant genetic variation in complex traits. Based on previous reports and the roles in pain pathways, w...

    Authors: Hyungsuk Kim, Hyewon Lee, Janet Rowan, Jaime Brahim and Raymond A Dionne

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2006 2:24

    Content type: Research

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  26. Protein kinases and phosphatases catalyze opposing reactions of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, which may modulate the function of crucial signaling proteins in central nervous system. This is an import...

    Authors: Xuan Zhang, Jing Wu, Li Fang and William D Willis

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2006 2:23

    Content type: Research

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  27. The vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) is critical in the development of inflammatory hyperalgesia. Several receptors including G-protein coupled prostaglandin receptors have been reported to functionally interact w...

    Authors: Irina Vetter, Bruce D Wyse, Gregory R Monteith, Sarah J Roberts-Thomson and Peter J Cabot

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2006 2:22

    Content type: Research

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  28. Activity-dependent synaptic plasticity is known to be important in learning and memory, persistent pain and drug addiction. Glutamate NMDA receptor activation stimulates several protein kinases, which then tri...

    Authors: Feng Wei, Guo-Du Wang, Chao Zhang, Kevan M Shokat, Huimin Wang, Joe Z Tsien, Jason Liauw and Min Zhuo

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2006 2:21

    Content type: Research

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  29. L-acetylcarnitine (LAC), a drug utilized for the treatment of neuropathic pain in humans, has been shown to induce analgesia in rodents by up-regulating the expression of metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 (mGl...

    Authors: Santina Chiechio, Agata Copani, Laura De Petris, Maria Elena P Morales, Ferdinando Nicoletti and Robert W Gereau IV

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2006 2:20

    Content type: Research

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  30. The complex neuronal circuitry of the dorsal horn of the spinal cord is as yet poorly understood. However, defining the circuits underlying the transmission of information from primary afferents to higher leve...

    Authors: Carole Torsney, Rebecca L Anderson, Kerry-Anne G Ryce-Paul and Amy B MacDermott

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2006 2:17

    Content type: Research

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  31. In the present study, we first report an in vivo characterization of flexor responses induced by three distinct sine-wave stimuli in the electrical stimulation-induced paw flexion (EPF) test in mice. The fixed si...

    Authors: Misaki Matsumoto, Makoto Inoue, Andreas Hald, Asuka Yamaguchi and Hiroshi Ueda

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2006 2:16

    Content type: Short report

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  32. Pain patients are often depressed and anxious, and benefit less from psychotropic drugs than pain-free patients. We hypothesize that this partial resistance is due to the unique neurochemical contribution to m...

    Authors: Mitchell B Max, Tianxia Wu, Steven J Atlas, Robert R Edwards, Jennifer A Haythornthwaite, Antonella F Bollettino, Heather S Hipp, Colin D McKnight, Inge A Osman, Erin N Crawford, Maryland Pao, Jemiel Nejim, Albert Kingman, Daniel C Aisen, Michele A Scully, Robert B Keller…

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2006 2:14

    Content type: Methodology

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  33. Protein kinase C (PKC) in the spinal cord appears to mediate chronic injury-induced pain, but not acute nociceptive pain. Muscle insult results in increased release of glutamate spinally, and hyperalgesia that...

    Authors: KA Sluka and KM Audette

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2006 2:13

    Content type: Research

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  34. Hypoxia alters neuronal function and can lead to neuronal injury or death especially in the central nervous system. But little is known about the effects of hypoxia in neurones of the peripheral nervous system...

    Authors: Marco Gruss, Giovanni Ettorre, Annette Jana Stehr, Michael Henrich, Gunter Hempelmann and Andreas Scholz

    Citation: Molecular Pain 2006 2:12

    Content type: Research

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